# Correct-by-construction programming in Agda

Lecture 1: Getting started with Agda

31 August 2019

# Correct-by-construction programming

“A computer will do what you tell it to do, but that may be much different from what you had in mind.”

–Joseph Weizenbaum

“Program testing can be used to show the presence of bugs, but never to show their absence!”

–Edsger Dijkstra

“That is the very purpose of declarative programming – to make it more likely that we mean what we say by improving our ability to say what we mean.”

–Conor McBride

## Why use dependent types?

With dependent types, we can statically verify that a program satisfies a given correctness property.

Verification is built into the language itself.

## Two approaches to verification with dependent types:

• Extrinsic approach: first write the program and then prove correctness
• Intrinsic approach: first define the type of programs that satisfy the correctness property and then write the program that inhabits this type

The intrinsic approach is also called correct-by-construction programming.

## Example of extrinsic verification

  module Extrinsic where
sort : List ℕ → List ℕ
sort = ⋯

IsSorted : List ℕ → Set
IsSorted = ⋯

sort-is-sorted : ∀ xs → IsSorted (sort xs)
sort-is-sorted = ⋯


## Example of intrinsic verification

  module Intrinsic where
SortedList : Set
SortedList = ⋯

sort : List ℕ → SortedList
sort = ⋯


## Correct-by-construction programming

Building invariants into the types of our program, to make it impossible to write an incorrect program in the first place.

No proving required!

## Running example

Implementation of a correct-by-construction typechecker + interpreter for a C-like language (WHILE)

int main () {
int n   = 100;
int sum = 0;
int k   = 0;
while (n > k) {
k   = k   + 1;
sum = sum + k;
}
printInt(sum);
}

## Overview of this course

• Lecture 1: Getting started with Agda
• Lecture 2: Indexed datatypes and dependent pattern matching
• Lecture 3: Writing Agda programs that run
• instance arguments
• do notation
• Lecture 4: (Non-)termination
• termination checker
• coinduction
• sized types

# Introduction to Agda

## What is Agda?

Agda is…

1. A strongly typed functional programming language in the tradition of Haskell
2. An interactive theorem prover in the tradition of Martin-Löf

We will mostly use 1. in this course.

## Installation

For this tutorial, you will need to install Agda, the Agda standard library, and the BNFC tool.

Installation instructions:

git clone https://github.com/jespercockx/ohrid19-agda
cd ohrid19-agda
./setup.sh

## Main features of Agda

• Dependent types
• Indexed datatypes and dependent pattern matching
• Termination checking and productivity checking
• A universe hierachy with universe polymorphism
• Implicit arguments
• Parametrized modules (~ ML functors)

## Other lesser well-known features of Agda

• Record types with copattern matching
• Coinductive datatypes
• Sized types
• Instance arguments (~ Haskell’s typeclasses)
• A FFI to Haskell

We will use many of these in the course of this tutorial!

## Emacs mode for Agda

Basic commands:

• C-c C-l: typecheck and highlight the current file
• C-c C-d: deduce the type of an expression
• C-c C-n: evaluate an expression to normal form

Programs may contain holes (? or {! !}).

• C-c C-,: get information about the hole under the cursor
• C-c C-space: give a solution
• C-c C-r: refine the hole
• Introduce a lambda or constructor
• Apply given function to some new holes
• C-c C-c: case split on a variable

## Unicode input

Agda’s Emacs mode interprets many latex-like commands as unicode symbols:

• \lambda = λ
• \forall = ∀
• \r = →, \l = ←
• \Gamma = Γ, \Sigma = Σ, …
• \equiv = ≡
• \:: = ∷
• \bN = ℕ, \bZ = ℤ, …

To get information about specific character, use M-x describe-char

# Demo time!

## Data types

  data Bool : Set where
true  : Bool
false : Bool

data ℕ : Set where
zero : ℕ
suc  : (n : ℕ) → ℕ


## Function definitions

_+_ : ℕ → ℕ → ℕ
zero  + y = y
suc x + y = suc (x + y)


Note: underscores indicate argument positions for mixfix functions

## Pattern-matching lambda

A pattern lambda introduces an anonymous function:
f : Bool → Bool
f = λ { true  → false
; false → true
}

Alternative syntax:
f′ : Bool → Bool
f′ = λ where
true  → false
false → true


## Testing functions using the identity type

The identity type x ≡ y is inhabited by refl iff x and y are (definitionally) equal.

We can use this to write checked tests for our Agda functions!

open import Relation.Binary.PropositionalEquality using (_≡_; refl)

testPlus : 1 + 1 ≡ 2
testPlus = refl


## Parametrized datatypes

data List (A : Set) : Set where
[]  : List A
_∷_ : A → List A → List A

data Maybe (A : Set) : Set where
nothing : Maybe A
just    : A → Maybe A


## Parametrized functions

if_then_else_ : {A : Set} → Bool → A → A → A
if false then x else y = y
if true  then x else y = x


Note: {A : Set} indicates an implicit argument

# Syntax of WHILE language

## Abstract syntax tree of WHILE

open import Data.Char using (Char)
open import Data.Integer using (ℤ)

data Id : Set where
mkId : List Char → Id

data Exp : Set where
eId       : (x : Id)      → Exp
eInt      : (i : ℤ)       → Exp
eBool     : (b : Bool)    → Exp
ePlus     : (e e' : Exp)  → Exp
eGt       : (e e' : Exp)  → Exp
eAnd      : (e e' : Exp)  → Exp


## Untyped interpreter

data Val : Set where
intV  : ℤ    → Val
boolV : Bool → Val

eval : Exp → Maybe Val
eval = ⋯


## Exercises

• Install Agda and download the code with git clone https://github.com/jespercockx/ohrid19-agda
• Load the code in Emacs
• Choose a language construct (e.g. ~ or -) and add it to AST.agda and UntypedInterpreter.agda